Transcripts of human endogenous retrovirus K are expressed in most breast cancers (BCs). Yellow fever vaccine 17D (YFV) expresses a protein with a closely homologous epitope. Cross-reactive immunity could hypothetically inhibit BC growth at least in women aged around 50 years at diagnosis, in whom the prognosis of BC was found to be better than that in women younger or older. A cohort of 12 804 women who received YFV in the Veneto Region, Italy, was divided into two subcohorts according to age at vaccination and followed up through the Veneto Tumor Registry. The time since vaccination until cancer incidence was categorized (≤1.9; 2-3.9; 4-5.9; 6-7.9; 8-10.9; ≥11 years) and, using the lowest class as a reference, the incidence rate ratio for BC with a 95% confidence interval and P-value was estimated by Poisson regression in each time since vaccination class, adjusting for age and calendar period. In 3140 women vaccinated at 40-54 years of age, YFV administration resulted in a protective effect of long duration slowly fading over time with a U-shaped pattern of response. Overall, BC risk was reduced by about 50% (incidence rate ratio=0.46; 95% confidence interval=0.26-0.83; P=0.009) 2 years after vaccination. Cross-reactive antigens could not be the mechanism because no protection was observed in women vaccinated before 40 or after 54 years of age. BC cells in a microscopic stage of disease can be destroyed or severely damaged by YFV if BC is not very aggressive. To prove that treatment is truly effective, a placebo-controlled double-blind trial should be conducted.
There is currently an epidemic of African Swine Fever and since influenza virus undergoes reassortment in pigs it is possible that a human influenza virus might emerge by this process which may contain the virulence of pig African Swine Flu. There is now a grave epidemic amongst pigs in China and elsewhere in the world. African Swine Flu virus is both virulent and hard to kill . Hence the current epidemic among pigs. Time will tell what this might mean for humans.
Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae share between 80% and 90% of their genetic sequence. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles-such as VA-MENGOC-BC-could cross-protect against gonorrhea. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence rates of gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted diseases with respect to the use of the VA-MENGOC-BC vaccine.
Health statistics between 1970 and 2017 were reviewed and the incidence of meningococcal disease and sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, syphilis, condyloma acuminatum , hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infection) were analyzed during the pre- and post-vaccination periods.
Gonorrhea incidence was also analyzed by age groups. Results: VA-MENGOC-BC was successfully used to control a meningococcal epidemic in Cuba. The strategy to combat the epidemic was carried out in two stages. The first one was a nationwide mass-vaccination campaign from 1989 to 1990, targeting the population at highest-risk aged 3 months to 24 years. During the second stage, begun in 1991, it was included in the Expanded Immunization Program. Gonorrhea incidence increased from 1970 to 1989. However, after the VA-MENGOC-BC massive vaccination campaign a sharp decrease of gonorrhea incidence was observed. It lasted between 1989 and 1993. A second incidence peak was detected in 1995, but it dropped again. Data clearly show a decline in the incidence of gonorrhea following massive vaccination, in contrast with other sexually transmitted diseases. Incidence rates in unvaccinated age groups also decreased, probably due to herd immunity. Conclusion: There is evidence that VA-MENGOC-BC could induce a moderate protection against gonorrhea.
See Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research. 2019 Jul; 8 (2) : 110-115.
A meningococcal B vaccine induces cross-protection against gonorrhea.
Rolando Felipe Ochoa Azze
Vaccination may increase gout flare risk
medwireNews: The increased risk for gout flares following receipt of the aluminum-free recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) is not unique to this vaccine but is instead associated with vaccination in general, regardless of the adjuvant used, US researchers report.
However, Hyon Choi (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston) and colleagues stress that “the absolute magnitude of increased odds of gout flares with vaccinations remains small.”
The researchers explain that although RZV is “the preferred zoster vaccine endorsed by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices,” two phase III clinical trials have shown that it is associated with a 3.6-fold increased risk for gout flares, prompting the implementation of an enhanced post marketing surveillance program.
An Old Vaccine Keeps Getting Better
Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine enhances bacteria protection and appears to last longer
July 22nd, 2019 – New research about an old vaccine showed once again how effective it is, but also suggests the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine improves our immune response to a wider range of bacteria than originally intended.
A new study published on July 12, 2019, by the University of Otago, Wellington, found the BCG vaccine, which has been in use since 1921, gave stronger protection and appeared to last far longer than previously thought.
Previous studies have given widely different results on the effectiveness of BCG and its effectiveness had been questioned in the past, said Principal investigator Dr. Ayesha Verrall, who is also an infectious diseases physician at Wellington Hospital, in a press release.
“Our research has shown that the people who remained uninfected were truly immune, and not just lucky and uninfected. This is also supported by the fact they have stronger innate immune
“We also found this protection was associated with stronger innate immune responses to a range of different bacteria, suggesting BCG protects people by ‘training’ their innate immune cells.”
“This is different from how vaccines are conventionally thought to work, through inducing memory cells to make antibodies that are highly specific to a particular bacteria.”
“Our finding that the BCG vaccine appears to work through the innate immune system is consistent with it having broader benefits than just TB protection. These non-specific effects are really interesting and need further study.”
According to the World Health Organization, approximately 1.7 billion people—23 percent of the world’s population—have latent TB infection and carry the risk of developing TB during their lifetime.
The BCG vaccine is not widely used in the United States, but it is often given to infants and small children in other countries where TB is common, says the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
In the United States, BCG should be considered for only very select people who meet specific criteria and in consultation with a TB expert. Healthcare providers who are considering BCG vaccination for their patients are encouraged to discuss this intervention with the TB control program in their area.
In the USA, the BCG vaccination should only be considered for children who have a negative TB test and who are continually exposed and cannot be separated from adults who:
Are untreated or ineffectively treated for TB disease, and the child cannot be given long-term primary preventive treatment for TB infection; or
Have TB disease caused by strains resistant to isoniazid and rifampin.
Future tuberculosis vaccines would ideally target both M. tuberculosis-infected and uninfected adolescents and adults said these researchers.
Dr. Verrall is about to start a new field study to see if BCG vaccination works by adding chemical marks to innate immune cells’ DNA, leading to a “boost” for innate immune responses. This new work is funded by the New Zealand Health Research Council.
The research was part of a long-standing collaboration on TB between the University of Otago’s Centre for International Health, Universitas Padjadjaran, and Radboud University.
USA Today reports that Facebook will extend its censorship to anti-vaccine news. USA Today states:
‘Facebook is considering making anti-vaccination content on its site less visible amid a measles outbreak that has reignited a conversation about preventative shots.
The social media giant that’s been criticized for spreading fake news told USA TODAY it’s “taken steps to reduce the distribution of health-related misinformation on Facebook, but we know we have more to do.”
Facebook has been fighting misinformation on its platform since the 2016 presidential election after fake accounts and news stories aimed at sowing discord among users were discovered.’
Not only are social media censoring left political ideas but, now, extending this censorship to medical issues regarding vaccines and other unpopular ideas. The victims of this censorship is the left, natural medicine, and those pointing to deficiencies in current vaccines. It should be noted that we now have the technology and knowledge to make safer and more effective vaccines. Among those censoring are Facebook, YouTube, Amazon and other social media.
Those voices who normally raise concerns about censorship and demand free speech are strangely and cowardly absent today.
[**Biochemical Pharmacology**][Biochemical Pharmacology]
Available online 10 February 201
Aging is accompanied by progressive declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength and impaired regenerative capacity, predisposing older adults to debilitating age-related muscle deteriorations and severe morbidity. Muscle stem cells (muSCs) that proliferate, differentiate to fusion-competent myoblasts, and facilitate muscle regeneration are increasingly dysfunctional upon aging, impairing muscle recovery after injury. While regulators of muSC activity can offer novel therapeutics to improve recovery and reduce morbidity among aged adults, there are no known muSC regenerative small molecule therapeutics. We recently developed small molecule inhibitors of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), an enzyme overexpressed with aging in skeletal muscles and linked to impairment of the NAD\\+ salvage pathway, dysregulated sirtuin 1 activity, and increased muSC senescence. We hypothesized that NNMT inhibitor (NNMTi) treatment will rescue age-related deficits in muSC activity to promote superior regeneration post-injury in aging muscle. 24-month old mice were treated with saline (control), and low and high dose NNMTi (5 and 10 mg/kg) for 1-week post-injury, or control and high dose NNMTi for 3-weeks post-injury. All mice underwent an acute muscle injury (barium chloride injection) locally to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, and received 5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine systemically to analyze muSC activity. *In vivo*contractile function measurements were conducted on the injured TA muscle and tissues collected for ex-vivo analyses, including myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements to assess muscle recovery. Results revealed that muscle stem cell proliferation and subsequent fusion were elevated in NNMTi-treated mice, supporting nearly 2-fold greater CSA and shifts in fiber size distribution to greater proportions of larger sized myofibers and fewer smaller sized fibers in NNMTi-treated mice compared to controls. Prolonged NNMTi treatment post-injury further augmented myofiber regeneration evinced by increasingly larger fiber CSA. Importantly, improved muSC activity translated not only to larger myofibers after injury but also to greater contractile function, with the peak torque of the TA increased by ∼70% in NNMTi-treated mice compared to controls. Similar results were recapitulated *in vitro* with C2C12 myoblasts, where NNMTi treatment promoted and enhanced myoblast differentiation with supporting changes in the cellular NAD\\+/NADH redox states. Taken together, these results provide the first clear evidence that NNMT inhibitors constitute a viable pharmacological approach to enhance aged muscle regeneration by rescuing muSC function, supporting the development of NNMTi as novel mechanism-of-action therapeutic to improve skeletal muscle regenerative capacity and functional recovery after musculoskeletal injury in older adults
[Biochemical Pharmacology]: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00062952
[In Press_ Accepted]: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/aip/00062952
Possible link between rotavirus vaccine and decline in type 1 diabetes
January 22, 2019
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute
A drop in the number of young children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes could be associated with the introduction of routine rotavirus vaccination of Australian infants.
A drop in the number of young children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes could be associated with the introduction of routine rotavirus vaccination of Australian infants, according to a new study by Melbourne researchers.
The researchers investigated the number of Australian children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes from 2000 to 2015 and found that type 1 diabetes diagnoses in children aged 0-4 years declined from 2007 — the year that rotavirus vaccine was introduced as a routine infant vaccination.
This is the first time the rate of type 1 diabetes in young children in Australia has fallen since the 1980s. While not conclusively linking the rotavirus vaccine with protection against type 1 diabetes, the discovery builds on earlier research suggesting natural rotavirus infection may be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes.
The study, a collaboration led by the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute and Walter and Eliza Hall Institute clinician scientists, was published in JAMA Pediatrics today.
Decline in type 1 diabetes
Since the 1980s, the incidence of type 1 diabetes has steadily increased in Australia and worldwide, but the reasons for this increase are poorly understood. Type 1 diabetes is a serious, lifelong autoimmune condition, in which the body’s immune system destroys cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, a hormone that controls the level of glucose in the blood.
By investigating the number of Australian children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes each year since 2000, the research team observed that after 2007 the rate of type 1 diabetes decreased in children aged 0-4 years, said study lead Dr Kirsten Perrett from the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute.
“The significant decrease in type 1 diabetes that we detected in young children after 2007 was not seen in older children aged 5-14. This suggests the young children could have been exposed to a protective factor that didn’t impact older children,” Dr Perrett said.
“We observed the decline in the rate of type 1 diabetes in children born after 2007 coincided with the introduction of the oral rotavirus vaccine onto the Australian National Immunisation Program in 2007.”
The rotavirus vaccine is routinely given to Australian infants aged 2 and 4 months to protect them against a severe, potentially life-threatening form of diarrhoea.
Exploring the connection
Professor Len Harrison from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, who is the study senior author, said the discovery followed on from earlier research implicating rotavirus infection in the development of type 1 diabetes.
“Twenty years ago our team revealed an association between the appearance of immune markers of type 1 diabetes in children and rotavirus infection. Subsequent studies in laboratory models suggested rotavirus infection of pancreatic cells can trigger an immune attack against the insulin-producing cells — similar to what occurs in type 1 diabetes,” he said.
“While not conclusive, our latest study suggests that preventing rotavirus infection in Australian infants by vaccination may also reduce their risk of type 1 diabetes. We will be continuing this research to look more closely at the correlation, by comparing the health records of young children with or without type 1 diabetes.
“At this stage we don’t yet know whether the reduction in type 1 diabetes is a permanent effect or transient, and it may only be relevant to Australian children,” Professor Harrison said.
The research was supported by the National Health and Medical Research Council (ECF APP1054394), a Melbourne Children’s Clinician-Scientist Fellowship, a Murdoch Children’s Research Institute grant, the Colin North Diabetes Fund and the Victorian Government.
Materials provided by Walter and Eliza Hall Institute. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.
Kirsten P. Perrett, Kim Jachno, Terry M. Nolan, Leonard C. Harrison. Association of Rotavirus Vaccination With the Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Children. JAMA Pediatrics, 2019; DOI: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.4578
Cite This Page:
Walter and Eliza Hall Institute. “Possible link between rotavirus vaccine and decline in type 1 diabetes.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 January 2019. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/01/22