There is currently an epidemic of African Swine Fever and since influenza virus undergoes reassortment in pigs it is possible that a human influenza virus might emerge by this process which may contain the virulence of pig African Swine Flu. There is now a grave epidemic amongst pigs in China and elsewhere in the world. African Swine Flu virus is both virulent and hard to kill . Hence the current epidemic among pigs. Time will tell what this might mean for humans.
Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae share between 80% and 90% of their genetic sequence. Meningococcal serogroup B vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles-such as VA-MENGOC-BC-could cross-protect against gonorrhea. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence rates of gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted diseases with respect to the use of the VA-MENGOC-BC vaccine.
Health statistics between 1970 and 2017 were reviewed and the incidence of meningococcal disease and sexually transmitted diseases (gonorrhea, syphilis, condyloma acuminatum , hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infection) were analyzed during the pre- and post-vaccination periods.
Gonorrhea incidence was also analyzed by age groups. Results: VA-MENGOC-BC was successfully used to control a meningococcal epidemic in Cuba. The strategy to combat the epidemic was carried out in two stages. The first one was a nationwide mass-vaccination campaign from 1989 to 1990, targeting the population at highest-risk aged 3 months to 24 years. During the second stage, begun in 1991, it was included in the Expanded Immunization Program. Gonorrhea incidence increased from 1970 to 1989. However, after the VA-MENGOC-BC massive vaccination campaign a sharp decrease of gonorrhea incidence was observed. It lasted between 1989 and 1993. A second incidence peak was detected in 1995, but it dropped again. Data clearly show a decline in the incidence of gonorrhea following massive vaccination, in contrast with other sexually transmitted diseases. Incidence rates in unvaccinated age groups also decreased, probably due to herd immunity. Conclusion: There is evidence that VA-MENGOC-BC could induce a moderate protection against gonorrhea.
See Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research. 2019 Jul; 8 (2) : 110-115.
A meningococcal B vaccine induces cross-protection against gonorrhea.
Rolando Felipe Ochoa Azze
Vaccination may increase gout flare risk
medwireNews: The increased risk for gout flares following receipt of the aluminum-free recombinant zoster vaccine (RZV) is not unique to this vaccine but is instead associated with vaccination in general, regardless of the adjuvant used, US researchers report.
However, Hyon Choi (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston) and colleagues stress that “the absolute magnitude of increased odds of gout flares with vaccinations remains small.”
The researchers explain that although RZV is “the preferred zoster vaccine endorsed by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices,” two phase III clinical trials have shown that it is associated with a 3.6-fold increased risk for gout flares, prompting the implementation of an enhanced post marketing surveillance program.
An Old Vaccine Keeps Getting Better
Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine enhances bacteria protection and appears to last longer
July 22nd, 2019 – New research about an old vaccine showed once again how effective it is, but also suggests the Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine improves our immune response to a wider range of bacteria than originally intended.
A new study published on July 12, 2019, by the University of Otago, Wellington, found the BCG vaccine, which has been in use since 1921, gave stronger protection and appeared to last far longer than previously thought.
Previous studies have given widely different results on the effectiveness of BCG and its effectiveness had been questioned in the past, said Principal investigator Dr. Ayesha Verrall, who is also an infectious diseases physician at Wellington Hospital, in a press release.
“Our research has shown that the people who remained uninfected were truly immune, and not just lucky and uninfected. This is also supported by the fact they have stronger innate immune
“We also found this protection was associated with stronger innate immune responses to a range of different bacteria, suggesting BCG protects people by ‘training’ their innate immune cells.”
“This is different from how vaccines are conventionally thought to work, through inducing memory cells to make antibodies that are highly specific to a particular bacteria.”
“Our finding that the BCG vaccine appears to work through the innate immune system is consistent with it having broader benefits than just TB protection. These non-specific effects are really interesting and need further study.”
According to the World Health Organization, approximately 1.7 billion people—23 percent of the world’s population—have latent TB infection and carry the risk of developing TB during their lifetime.
The BCG vaccine is not widely used in the United States, but it is often given to infants and small children in other countries where TB is common, says the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
In the United States, BCG should be considered for only very select people who meet specific criteria and in consultation with a TB expert. Healthcare providers who are considering BCG vaccination for their patients are encouraged to discuss this intervention with the TB control program in their area.
In the USA, the BCG vaccination should only be considered for children who have a negative TB test and who are continually exposed and cannot be separated from adults who:
Are untreated or ineffectively treated for TB disease, and the child cannot be given long-term primary preventive treatment for TB infection; or
Have TB disease caused by strains resistant to isoniazid and rifampin.
Future tuberculosis vaccines would ideally target both M. tuberculosis-infected and uninfected adolescents and adults said these researchers.
Dr. Verrall is about to start a new field study to see if BCG vaccination works by adding chemical marks to innate immune cells’ DNA, leading to a “boost” for innate immune responses. This new work is funded by the New Zealand Health Research Council.
The research was part of a long-standing collaboration on TB between the University of Otago’s Centre for International Health, Universitas Padjadjaran, and Radboud University.
USA Today reports that Facebook will extend its censorship to anti-vaccine news. USA Today states:
‘Facebook is considering making anti-vaccination content on its site less visible amid a measles outbreak that has reignited a conversation about preventative shots.
The social media giant that’s been criticized for spreading fake news told USA TODAY it’s “taken steps to reduce the distribution of health-related misinformation on Facebook, but we know we have more to do.”
Facebook has been fighting misinformation on its platform since the 2016 presidential election after fake accounts and news stories aimed at sowing discord among users were discovered.’
Not only are social media censoring left political ideas but, now, extending this censorship to medical issues regarding vaccines and other unpopular ideas. The victims of this censorship is the left, natural medicine, and those pointing to deficiencies in current vaccines. It should be noted that we now have the technology and knowledge to make safer and more effective vaccines. Among those censoring are Facebook, YouTube, Amazon and other social media.
Those voices who normally raise concerns about censorship and demand free speech are strangely and cowardly absent today.
[**Biochemical Pharmacology**][Biochemical Pharmacology]
Available online 10 February 201
Aging is accompanied by progressive declines in skeletal muscle mass and strength and impaired regenerative capacity, predisposing older adults to debilitating age-related muscle deteriorations and severe morbidity. Muscle stem cells (muSCs) that proliferate, differentiate to fusion-competent myoblasts, and facilitate muscle regeneration are increasingly dysfunctional upon aging, impairing muscle recovery after injury. While regulators of muSC activity can offer novel therapeutics to improve recovery and reduce morbidity among aged adults, there are no known muSC regenerative small molecule therapeutics. We recently developed small molecule inhibitors of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT), an enzyme overexpressed with aging in skeletal muscles and linked to impairment of the NAD\\+ salvage pathway, dysregulated sirtuin 1 activity, and increased muSC senescence. We hypothesized that NNMT inhibitor (NNMTi) treatment will rescue age-related deficits in muSC activity to promote superior regeneration post-injury in aging muscle. 24-month old mice were treated with saline (control), and low and high dose NNMTi (5 and 10 mg/kg) for 1-week post-injury, or control and high dose NNMTi for 3-weeks post-injury. All mice underwent an acute muscle injury (barium chloride injection) locally to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, and received 5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine systemically to analyze muSC activity. *In vivo*contractile function measurements were conducted on the injured TA muscle and tissues collected for ex-vivo analyses, including myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements to assess muscle recovery. Results revealed that muscle stem cell proliferation and subsequent fusion were elevated in NNMTi-treated mice, supporting nearly 2-fold greater CSA and shifts in fiber size distribution to greater proportions of larger sized myofibers and fewer smaller sized fibers in NNMTi-treated mice compared to controls. Prolonged NNMTi treatment post-injury further augmented myofiber regeneration evinced by increasingly larger fiber CSA. Importantly, improved muSC activity translated not only to larger myofibers after injury but also to greater contractile function, with the peak torque of the TA increased by ∼70% in NNMTi-treated mice compared to controls. Similar results were recapitulated *in vitro* with C2C12 myoblasts, where NNMTi treatment promoted and enhanced myoblast differentiation with supporting changes in the cellular NAD\\+/NADH redox states. Taken together, these results provide the first clear evidence that NNMT inhibitors constitute a viable pharmacological approach to enhance aged muscle regeneration by rescuing muSC function, supporting the development of NNMTi as novel mechanism-of-action therapeutic to improve skeletal muscle regenerative capacity and functional recovery after musculoskeletal injury in older adults
[Biochemical Pharmacology]: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00062952
[In Press_ Accepted]: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/aip/00062952
Vaccines contain chemicals and other ingredients that are carcinogenic.
The biggest class of carcinogenic additives in vaccines are heavy metals with mercury being the most dangerous. Even minute amounts of mercury affect every system of the body: the endocrine, the neurological system, the digestive system, the epithelial tissue.
Antibodies that are stimulated by the body from vaccines are not always enough to provide lifelong protection from a disease. For example, people who had Chicken Pox often still get Shingles later in life.
Vaccines include foreign RNA and DNA from animals, aborted fetal tissue, formaldehyde, antifreeze-like compounds. If you added these same ingredients to a baby’s bottle you would be charged with attempted murder.
Serogroup B meningococcal vaccine Bexsero reported to elicit antibodies to Neisseria Gonorrhea
December 21st, 2018 – New research indicates that the meningococcal B vaccine Bexero may offer cross-protection against gonorrhea.
Bexsero, which is FDA-approved to prevent invasive disease caused by Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, for individuals 10 to 25 years of age, includes the MeNZB OMV component plus 3 recombinant antigens, NadA, fHBP-GNA2091 and NHBA-GNA1030.
This research found there is a high level of sequence identity between MeNZB OMV and Bexsero OMV antigens, and gonococcal proteins in test rabbits.
This study’s conclusion said ‘the anti-gonococcal antibodies induced by MeNZB-like OMV proteins could explain the previously seen decrease
And, the high level of anti-gonococcal-NHBA antibodies generated by Bexsero vaccination in humans may result in additional cross-protection against gonorrhea.
Gonorrhea is the 2nd most commonly reported notifiable disease in the USA.
Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by infection with the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium.
N. gonorrhea infects the mucous membranes of the reproductive tract, including the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes in women, and the urethra in women and men, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
This new study builds on a 2017 report that the outer membrane vesicle (OMV) meningococcal B vaccine, MeNZB, was reported to be associated with reduced rates of gonorrhea following a mass vaccination campaign in New Zealand.
To probe the basis for this protection we assessed cross-reactivity to N. gonorrhea of serum raised to the meningococcal vaccine Bexsero, which contains the MeNZB OMV component plus three recombinant antigens (NadA, fHBP-GNA2091, and NHBA-GNA1030).
This new information is important since gonorrhea is becoming increasingly difficult due to widespread antibiotic resistance, says the CDC.
In 2017, 555,608 cases of gonorrhea were reported to CDC.
While vaccines are routinely used for N.meningitidis, no vaccine is available for N.gonorrhea.
“We have all the knowledge and technology to make a real gonorrhea vaccine,” said the producer of Bexero, GSK, in an interview during November 2018.
This study’s results may lead to human clinical trials.
These Australian researchers included Evgeny A Semchenko, Aimee Tan, ay Borrow, and Kate L Seib, Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast, Australia.
Monday, December 10, 2018
Findings reveal tripling of blood levels of TMAO from red meat diet, but dietary effects can be reversed
Researchers have identified another reason to limit red meat consumption: high levels of a gut-generated chemical called trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), that also is linked to heart disease. Scientists found that people who eat a diet rich in red meat have triple the TMAO levels of those who eat a diet rich in either white meat or mostly plant-based proteins, but discontinuation of red meat eventually lowers those TMAO levels.
TMAO is a dietary byproduct that is formed by gut bacteria during digestion and is derived in part from nutrients that are abundant in red meat. While high saturated fat levels in red meat have long been known to contribute to heart disease—the leading cause of death in the United States—a growing number of studies have identified TMAO as another culprit. Until now, researchers knew little about how typical dietary patterns influence TMAO production or elimination.
The findings suggest that measuring and targeting TMAO levels—something doctors can do with a simple blood test—may be a promising new strategy for individualizing diets and helping to prevent heart disease. The study was funded largely by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of the National Institutes of Health. It will be published Dec. 10 in the European Heart Journal, a publication of the European Society of Cardiology.
“These findings reinforce current dietary recommendations that encourage all ages to follow a heart-healthy eating plan that limits red meat,” said Charlotte Pratt, Ph.D., the NHLBI project officer for the study and a nutrition researcher and Deputy Chief of the Clinical Applications & Prevention Branch, Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, NHLBI. “This means eating a variety of foods, including more vegetables, fruits, whole grains, low-fat dairy foods, and plant-based protein sources such as beans and peas.”
“This study shows for the first time what a dramatic effect changing your diet has on levels of TMAO, which is increasingly linked to heart disease,” said Stanley L. Hazen, M.D., Ph.D., senior author of the study and section head of Preventive Cardiology & Rehabilitation at the Cleveland Clinic. “It suggests that you can lower your heart disease risk by lowering TMAO.”
Hazen estimated that as many as a quarter of middle-aged Americans have naturally elevated TMAO levels, which are made worse by chronic red meat consumption. However, every person’s TMAO profile appears to be different, so tracking this chemical marker, Hazen suggested, could be an important step in using personalized medicine to fight heart disease.
For the study, researchers enrolled 113 healthy men and women in a clinical trial to examine the effects of dietary protein—in the form of red meat, white meat, or non-meat sources—on TMAO production. All subjects were placed on each diet for a month in random order. When on the red meat diet, the participants consumed roughly the equivalent of about 8 ounces of steak daily, or two quarter-pound beef patties. After one month, researchers found that, on average, blood levels of TMAO in these participants tripled, compared to when they were on the diets high in either white meat or non-meat protein sources.
While all diets contained equal amounts of calories, half of the participants were also placed on high-fat versions of the three diets, and the researchers observed similar results. Thus, the effects of the protein source on TMAO levels were independent of dietary fat intake.
Importantly, the researchers discovered that the TMAO increases were reversible. When the subjects discontinued their red meat diet and moved to either a white meat or non-meat diet for another month, their TMAO levels decreased significantly.
The exact mechanisms by which TMAO affects heart disease is complex. Prior research has shown TMAO enhances cholesterol deposits into cells of the artery wall. Studies by the researchers also suggest that the chemical interacts with platelets—blood cells that are responsible for normal clotting responses—in a way that increases the risk for clot-related events such as heart attack and stroke.
TMAO measurement is currently available as a quick, simple blood test first developed by Hazen’s laboratory. In recent published studies, he and his colleagues reported development of a new class of drugs that are capable of lowering TMAO levels in the blood and reducing atherosclerosis and clotting risks in animal models, but those drugs are still experimental and not yet available to the public.
The study was supported by grants from the NHLBI and the Office of Dietary Supplements (HL103866, HL126827, HL106003, HL130819) and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (DK106000). The study was also supported by UCSF Clinical and Translational Science Unit.
Part of the National Institutes of Health, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) plans, conducts, and supports research related to the causes, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of heart, blood vessel, lung, and blood diseases; and sleep disorders. The Institute also administers national health education campaigns on women and heart disease, healthy weight for children, and other topics. NHLBI press releases and other materials are available online at https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov.
About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation’s medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. NIH is the primary federal agency conducting and supporting basic, clinical, and translational medical research, and is investigating the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892